Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya Scenario in Malaysia

16 Jan 2017

Aedes aegypti is not indigenous to Malaysia. It is believed to originate from tropical Africa and introduced to Malaysia via India at the turn of the 20th century. On the other hand, Aedes albopictus is native to Southeast Asia including Malaysia. Both species are prolific breeders in artificial & natural containers and are vectors of human viruses, such as dengue, Zika, yellow fever, chikungunya etc.  One of the significant biting behaviour of both these species is that they are multiple feeders whereby they can bite several people when their feeding is being disturbed. Ae. aegypti is the primary vector for dengue and Zika in Malaysia. Ae. albopictus has also been recognized as a secondary vector and is important in the maintenance of dengue  and chikungunya viruses in places where Ae. aegypti is absent or not well established.

In recent years, dengue outbreaks have attained epidemic proportions, causing significant public health impact by causing high morbidity and mortality. Presently dengue is the most rapidly spreading virus infection globally, with transmission occurring in at least 128 countries and almost 4 billion people are at risk. The number of dengue cases reported to World Health Organisation (WHO) has increased steadily from an average of less than a thousand cases per year globally in the 1950s to more than 3 million cases in 2013. Dengue is practically the only serious mosquito borne virus in Malaysia, with 101,357 dengue cases and 237 deaths reported in 2016. The virus that causes dengue is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) with four antigenically distinct serotypes (DEN-1, DEN 2, DEN 3 and DEN 4) that offer no long-term cross-protective immunity against each other. All 4 serotypes are endemic to Malaysia. Recently DEN-1, DEN-2 and DEN-3 are the dominant circulating serotypes in the country.

In Malaysia, chikungunya infection was first recorded in 1998-1999 in Port Klang affecting more than 51 people, then followed by the outbreak in Bagan Panchor, Perak in 2006. After a lapse of almost 2 years, the re-emergence of chikungunya infection occurred in July 2008  in Tangkak, Johor which then spread to other states in peninsular Malaysia such as Negeri Sembilan and Malacca with more than 2000 cases reported. Until March 2009, more than 1600 cases had been reported in Kuala Lumpur, and the state of Selangor. In subsequent years, few chikungunya cases were reported, until March 2017, when a total of 50 cases were reported from Baling, Kedah and Gombak, Selangor, indicating a possible resurgence of the disease.

On the 31 August 2016, Malaysia recorded the first human case of Zika. The patient was infected after a visit to Singapore, subsequently the first locally acquired Zika case was reported in Sabah on the 3rd  September 2016.  Another case involving a pregnant woman was also reported later. To date, a total of eight cases have been reported.

The Challenges

There is no specific treatment for dengue, Zika and chikungunya infection. A safe and highly effective dengue tetravalent vaccine is still in development. As Aedes mosquito is a day-biting mosquito, bed nets are also not effective against Aedes-borne diseases like dengue, chikungunya or Zika.

The current strategy is to control the mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus using conventional methods such as fogging with insecticides and breeding site reduction. However, these methods cannot prevent dengue outbreaks by themselves as they are not sustainable and as seen from examples around the world. An important reason for this is the low vector threshold for dengue transmission. As low as 2-3 adult female mosquitoes emerging every day in a locality of 100 people is sufficient to start an outbreak.

Because of this, public commitment and involvement is also of paramount importance and this has been adapted to continue public education and ‘COMmunication for Behavioural Impact’ (COMBI) for sustained breeding site reduction involving the public. Legally-enforced larval control, whether by breeding site elimination or larviciding, is neither practical for a large and diverse country like Malaysia, nor has it stopped the resurgence of dengue in other countries. Because of these limitations, there is an urgent need to research other innovative control methods, such as use of Wolbachia, thereby employing the mosquitoes themselves to control the disease.

Share

wolbadmin

Comments

  1. This can be a wonderful way to recognize new keyword
    possibilities.

    Feel free to visit my blog … uk seo agency

  2. Enzyday Says: June 10, 2021 at 1:00 pm
  3. Z tego względu pozycjonowanie strony to jedna z najskuteczniejszych i najtańszych form reklamy dla Twojej firmy.

  4. After the traffic ѕtarts to pour іn and visibility increases, we recognize what’ѕ operating аnd what isn’t.

    my website :: organic seo uk

  5. Веб-сайт, на котором пользователи могут легко изменить язык на свой
    родной.

    my website – особенности создания англоязычного сайта

  6. We’ll analyze your web site and crete a appropriate conversion-rate approach.

    Aⅼso visit my webpage escorts seo

  7. Enzyday Says: June 24, 2021 at 6:31 pm
  8. Your projects will then be reviewed with
    feedback how to improve organic seo determine any mastering gaps.

  9. Pozycjonowanie lokalne bardzo mocno powiązane jest z geolokalizacją wyszukujących, dlatego pozycjonowanie stron www uk wymaga tutaj nieco innego
    podejścia.

  10. I simply could not leave your site before suggesting that I extremely loved the usual info a person supply to your guests? Is gonna be back steadily to check up on new posts.

  11. I simply couldn’t leave your website before suggesting that I really loved the standard information an individual supply for your guests? Is gonna be again continuously in order to inspect new posts.

  12. Don’t try to trick search engines this way, as it could hurt your organic seo company uk.

  13. It’s actually a nice and useful piece of information. I am happy that you simply shared this helpful information with us. Please stay us informed like this. Thank you for sharing.

  14. Wow, wonderful blog structure! How lengthy have you been blogging for? you make running a blog look easy. The whole look of your website is wonderful, as well as the content material! firmonet

  15. What i do not understood is in fact how you are no longer really much more smartly-favored than you may be right now. You’re very intelligent. You realize thus significantly on the subject of this subject, made me personally imagine it from numerous varied angles. Its like men and women aren’t interested except it’s one thing to do with Woman gaga! Your own stuffs great. Always handle it up! firmonet

  16. I like the valuable info you provide in your articles.

    I will bookmark your weblog and test once more right
    here regularly. I’m relatively sure I’ll be informed a lot of
    new stuff proper right here! Best of luck for the following!

  17. Hello to all, the contents existing at this web site are truly remarkable for people experience, well, keep up the good work fellows.

  18. Very quickly this web page will be famous amid all blogging
    and site-building people, due to it’s fastidious articles or reviews

  19. I’ll take a note of your blog site and inspect once again here each day.

  20. Somebody essentially help to make seriously articles I would state. This is the very first time I frequented your website page and thus far? I amazed with the research you made to make this particular publish extraordinary. Fantastic job!

  21. I journal often times as well as I honestly respect your material. This excellent blog post has absolutely actually peaked my rate of interest. I am going to book mark your website and keep looking for brand-new details relating to when a week. I opted in for your RSS feed too.

  22. I feel that you’re on the right track with your website. You’ve got a plenty of exciting information that new visitors are going to appreciate.

  23. Have you ever thought about including a little bit more than just your articles? I mean, what you say is important and all. Nevertheless think about if you added some great images or video clips to give your posts more, “pop”! Your content is excellent but with images and video clips, this blog could certainly be one of the most beneficial in its field. Amazing blog!

  24. Terrific work! This is the type of info that should be shared around the internet. Shame on Google for not positioning this post higher! Come on over and visit my website . Thanks =)

  25. Awsome site! I am loving it!! Will come back again. I am taking your feeds also.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *