Kamal Shaik Fakiruddin, Puteri Baharuddin, Moon Nian Lim, Noor Atiqah Fakharuzi, Nurul Ain Nasim M Yusof and Zubaidah Zakaria (2014). Nucleofection optimization and in vitro antitumourigenic effect of TRAIL-expressing human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. Cancer Cell International 14(1):122
Background: Tumour homing capacity of engineered human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ADMSCs) expressing anti-tumour agents might be the key for a much safer and yet efficient targeted tumour therapy. However, ADMSCs exhibit resistant to most gene transfection techniques and the use of highly efficient viral vectors has several disadvantages primarily concerning safety risk. Here, we optimized the use of highly efficient and safe nucleofection-based transfection using plasmid encoded for TNF-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) into ADMSCs and investigated the potential anti-tumourigenic of TRAIL-expressing ADMSCs (ADMSCs-TRAIL) on selected cancer models in vitro.
Methods: Different concentration of TRAIL-encoded plasmid and ADMSCs were nucleofected and the percentage of fluorescence cells were analyzed to determine the optimal condition. TRAIL protein and mRNA were validated in nucloeofected ADMSCs using ELISA and RT-PCR respectively. Evaluation of TRAIL specific death receptors were performed on both tumours (A549/lung tumour, LN18/glioblastoma and HepG2/hepatocellular carcinoma) and haematological malignant lines (REH/acute lymphocytic leukaemia, K562/chronic myelogenous leukaemia and KMS-28BM/multiple myeloma) using flow cytometry. ADMSCs-TRAIL was subsequently assessed for anti-tumourigenic properties using both proliferation assay (MTS assay) and apoptosis assay (Annexin-V / Propidium Iodide staining).
Results: Nucleofection showed increased total plasmid concentration (2 μg to 8 μg) resulted in significantly higher reporter expression (11.33% to 39.7%) with slight reduction on cells viability (~10%). ADMSCs-TRAIL significantly inhibited ~50% of cell proliferation in LN18, signifying sensitivity of the cell to ADMSCs-TRAIL mediated inhibition. Inhibition of both tumour and malignant lines proliferation by ADMSCs-TRAIL conditioned medium noticed in HepG2, A549 and REH respectively, whereas K562 and KMS-28BM malignant lines exhibit resistant to ADMSCs-TRAIL mediated inhibition. Moreover, we found that native ADMSCs alone were capable of inducing apoptosis in both LN18 and HepG2 tumour lines, despite substantial increased on the percentage of apoptosis by ADMSCs-TRAIL.
Conclusion: ADMSCs-TRAIL selectively inhibit cancer model and markedly induces apoptosis. Through investigation of the specific TRAIL death receptors expression, we saw that the receptors expression did influence the sensitivity of some but not all cancer lines to TRAIL-mediated inhibition. This study provides further insight into the anti-tumourigenic potential of ADMSCs-TRAIL on different cancer models.