Lai Seong Hooi, Loke Meng Ong, Ghazali Ahmad, Sunita Bavanandan, Noor Aini Ahmad, Balkish M Naidu, Wan Nazaimoon W Mohamud and Muhammad Fadhli M Yusoff (2013). A population based study measuring the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among adults in West Malaysia. Kidney International 84(5): 1034-1040
In this population-based study, we determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in West Malaysia in order to have accurate information for health-care planning. A sample of 876 individuals, representative of 15,147 respondents from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011, of the noninstitutionalized adult population (over 18 years old) in West Malaysia was studied. We measured the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (CKD-EPI equation); albuminuria and stages of chronic kidney disease were derived from calibrated serum creatinine, age, gender and early morning urine albumin creatinine ratio. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in this group was 9.07%. An estimated 4.16% had stage 1 chronic kidney disease (eGFR >90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and persistent albuminuria), 2.05% had stage 2 (eGFR 60–89 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and persistent albuminuria), 2.26% had stage 3 (eGFR 30–59 ml/min per 1.73 m2), 0.24% had stage 4 (eGFR 15–29 ml/min per 1.73 m2), and 0.36% had stage 5 chronic kidney disease (eGFR <15 ml/min per 1.73 m2). Only 4% of respondents with chronic kidney disease were aware of their diagnosis. Risk factors included increased age, diabetes, and hypertension. Thus, chronic kidney disease in West Malaysia is common and, therefore, warrants early detection and treatment in order to potentially improve outcome.