Sumarni Mohd Ghazali, Zamtira Seman, Kee Chee Cheong, Lim Kuang Hock, Mala Manickam, Lim Kuang Kuay, Ahmad Faudzi Yusoff, Feisul Idzwan Mustafa and Amal Nasir Mustafa (2015). Sociodemographic factors associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors among Malaysian adults. BMC Public Health 15:68
Background: To determine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among Malaysian adults.
Methods: We analysed data on 1044 men and 1528 women, aged 24–64 years, participants in the Non Communicable Disease Surveillance 2005/2006, a nationally representative, population-based, cross-sectional study. Prevalence of obesity, high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycemia, physical inactivity, smoking, risky drinking, low vegetable and fruit intake were determined and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic factors associated with having ≥3 of these cardiovascular disease risk factors.
Results: The response rate was 84.6% (2572/3040). Overall, 68.4% (95% CI: 63.2, 73.1) had at least three risk factors. Among men, older age and Indian ethnicity were independently associated with having ≥3 CVD risk factors; while among women, older age, low education, and housewives were more likely to have ≥3 CVD risk factors.
Conclusion: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors clustering among Malaysian adults is high, raising concerns that cardiovascular disease incidence will rise steeply in the near future if no immediate preventive measures are taken. The current national health education and promotion programmes pertaining to modifiable risk factors can be further improved by taking into account the sociodemographic variation in CVD risk factors clustering.