Yuet-Meng Chin, Puteri J Noor, Azli Ismail, Mohd Fadly Md Ahid and Zubaidah Zakaria (2013). Cytogenetic profile of monosomal karyotype in adult acute myeloid leukemia. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication 3(11): 1-5
Cytogenetic abnormalities at diagnosis are important prognostic indicators in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML is categorized into 3 risk groups according to cytogenetic abnormalities; favorable, intermediate, and unfavorable. A new cytogenetic risk group called the monosomal karyotype (MK) had been identified in AML in the unfavorable cytogenetic risk group. The MK was reported to be associated with a dismal prognosis. The objective of this retrospective study was to analyze the type of chromosomal abnormalities found in adult AML patients with MK at diagnosis. Conventional cytogenetic analysis using standard procedure was performed as a routine diagnostic test in all leukemia patients at presentation of the disease. We report here the cytogenetic profile of 11 adult AML patients (age: 24 to 77 years) with MK. The most frequent chromosome aberrations observed were -5 or/and del(5q) [54%], -7 (36%), and -16 (36%). Abn(17q) was observed in two out of 11 patients (18%). Out of 11 patients, nine had hypodiploidy (41-45 chromosomes), one had diploidy (46 chromosomes), and one had hyperdiploidy (47 chromosomes). Ten MK patients (91%) had complex karyotype with five to nine clonal abnormalities. MK+ AML patients have a very unfavorable outcome due to resistance against current treatment modalities. The diagnosis of MK in AML is important in the clinical management of these patients.