Ahmad Faudzi Yusoff, Amal Nasir Mustafa, Hani Mat Husaain, Wan Mansor Hamzah, Apandi Mohd Yusof, Rozilawati Harun and Faezah Noor Abdullah (2013).The assessment of risk factor the Central/East African Genotype of chikungunya virus infections in the state of Kelantan: a case control study in Malaysia. BMC Infectious Diseases 13: 211
The aims of the study were to assess the risk factors in relation to cross border activities, exposure to mosquito bite and preventive measures taken.
An outbreak of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in Malaysia has been reported in Klang, Selangor (1998) and Bagan Panchor, Perak (2006). In 2009, CHIKV infection re-emerged in some states in Malaysia. It raises the possibilities that re-emergence is part of the epidemics in neighbouring countries or the disease is endemic in Malaysia. For this reason, A community-based case control study was carried out in the state of Kelantan.
Prospective case finding was performed from June to December 2009. Those who presented with signs and symptoms of CHIKV infection were investigated. We designed a case control study to assess the risk factors. Assessment consisted of answering questions, undergoing a medical examination, and being tested for the presence of IgM antibodies to CHIKV. Descriptive epidemiological studies were conducted by reviewing both the national surveillance and laboratory data. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine risk factors contributing to the illness. Cases were determined by positive to RT-PCR or serological for antibodies by IgM. CHIKV specificity was confirmed by DNA sequencing.
There were 129 suspected cases and 176 controls. Among suspected cases, 54.4% were diagnosed to have CHIKV infection. Among the controls, 30.1% were found to be positive to serology for antibodies [IgM, 14.2% and IgG, 15.9%]. For analytic study and based on laboratory case definition, 95 were considered as cases and 123 as controls. Those who were positive to IgG were excluded. CHIKV infection affected all ages and mostly between 50–59 years old. Staying together in the same house with infected patients and working as rubber tappers were at a higher risk of infection. The usage of Mosquito coil insecticide had shown to be a significant protective factor. Most cases were treated as outpatient, only 7.5% needed hospitalization. The CHIKV infection was attributable to central/east African genotype CHIKV.
In this study, cross border activity was not a significant risk factor although Thailand and Malaysia shared the same CHIKV genotype during the episode of infections.